Over the past millennium, scientific research in the us (US) features experienced a classical epidemiologic transition, step 1 towards attention moving on of personal illnesses about youthfulness infectious disease, nutrient inadequacies and you may epidemics in order to noncommunicable sickness-together with heart problems (CVD), blood pressure, all forms of diabetes mellitus, and you may chronic renal condition (CKD). The problem is enormous: in ’09–2010, eg, 23.1% of mature Us americans got prehypertension, whenever you are a supplementary 30.5% got blood pressure. dos Prices projected from the Western Center Association (AHA) put the head and you can indirect can chat zozo cost you from blood pressure levels at more than $93.5 billion per year. step 3
Dietary salt and you may/or potassium will be analyzed both of the weightloss bear in mind, measurement out-of fat loss intake and you will/or supplement need inside the an intervention, otherwise because of the research analysis from urinary sodium and you may potassium since the both song closely which have weight reduction intakes
Population studies have demonstrated an association between dietary sodium chloride (termed salt in this review) as well as dietary potassium, and blood pressure (BP). 4–9 Along with the rising prevalence of hypertension and CVD, non-pharmacological dietary guidelines designed to promote the health of the public have therefore been instituted. 10 While these programs have an impact, most Americans consume well above the minimum daily requirement for dietary salt and further have inadequate potassium intake. To emphasize the excess salt in the American diet, the US Department of Health and Human Services/US Department of Agriculture (US DHHS/USDA) 2010 Dietary Guidelines advise Americans to reduce daily sodium intake to <2300 mg/d per person, with an even lower goal of 1500 mg/d for specific subpopulations; while the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended an age-dependent targeted sodium intake of 1000–1500 mg/day and established a Tolerable Upper Level of Intake (UL) from 1500–2300 mg/day. 11 Between 2003–2008, the median daily sodium intake excluding table salt was 3371 mg (IQR: 2794, 4029) and median potassium consumption was 2631 mg (IQR: 2164 mg, 3161 mg) among US adults >20 years of age; 99.4% of US adults consumed >1500 mg of sodium daily and 90.7% consumed >2300 mg daily. 12 Recent high-profile publications, however, have challenged these guidelines. For this reason, this study considered the evidence that the level of dietary salt and potassium intake affects population BP, CVD, and mortality. Specifically, the authors examined the scientific rationale for population-wide recommendations to increase dietary potassium while reducing salt intake, the strength of available evidence, and offer recommendations for stakeholders to consider.
Methods and you can Research Foot
Studies in this review include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) linking dietary salt and potassium intakes to subsequent morbidity and mortality which determine the health outcomes of reducing salt intake and/or increasing potassium intakes by diet or supplementation. The following databases (from ined: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Pubmed and Quertle), EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Turning Research into Practice (TRIP) database, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and . Consideration was given to variations in terms used and spelling of terms so that studies were not overlooked and took the general form: (“dietary salt” or “dietary sodium” or (synonyms)) and (“dietary potassium” or (synonyms)) and (“blood pressure” or “hypertension” or “vascular disease” or “heart disease” or “chronic kidney disease” or “stroke” or “mortality” or (synonyms)). Studies were excluded if 1) the paper was an observational or ecological study, a review, or editorial/commentary; 2) the language was not English; 3) the participant total was <20; or 4) the outcome of the trial did not include systolic and diastolic BP, age, CKD, markers and indices of vascular function, CVD and CVD-related hospital admissions, or mortality. Studies that examined outcomes in the setting of heart failure were also excluded.
Studies must become an evaluation of fat reduction sodium and you will/otherwise dieting potassium; that can encompass members acquiring a dietary intervention one to restricted salt, one in which the input is actually guidance to attenuate salt intake, and/or the one that improved dieting potassium and you can/or in it potassium supplementation.